How have psychologists attempted to explain the concept of intelligence?


For majority of psychologist term of intelligence describes individual characteristic, which separate human from different individual. Exist many attempts to explain the intelligence as neutral and typical ability of human mind and cognitive performance. Like that description is not concentrate on the individual difference but on the individual trait which is agility to think reasoning and anther cognitive process. Many of psychologists allege that there is general factor called intelligence.

The idea of the word intelligence we can accredit to Latin philosopher Ceceron who use the word intelligence to describing the phenomenon of intellectual ability.

Fairly is widespread view that intelligence is psychophysical feature which is characteristically for the individual in the effectiveness to the task performing to engage intellectual process and reasoning and deduction.

According to researchers J. Piaget (1963) intelligence is an ability to resolve a problem hi saying more about intellectual behaviour, than about intelligence. J. Piaget want to emphasise that essence of intelligence as a mind process to understand, reasoning, deduction, to compare, detection which is changing in relation of the problem. (J. Piaget 1963.).

E. Hunt argue that “intelligence is a ability to processing the information”
The ambition of each Psychologists is to give they own definition of intelligence. Maybe the number and variety of the definition is showing to as how difficult is to put in word her essence.

Herein this essay we will not analyze all the definition of intelligence but we will concentrate on the intelligence theory which is most talk about and the mostly occur and which have the mostly impact on the development theory and research. Deliberation on the intelligence concept we will start from presenting the work of Charles Spearman (1904), Roberta Sternberga (1980), Raymond B. Cattell (1952).

In order to examine the questions whether or not psychologists attempted explain the concept of intelligence it will be necessary to offer theory of intelligence given by these psychologists themselves, and look at their understanding of the concept of intelligence.

One of the first psychologists which attempted to explain the concept of intelligence is Charles Spearman. This English psychologist is a pioneer in the factor analysis.

C. Spearman (1904) has given start to the new methodology which discovering and gives classification to the abilities measure by test.

In order to present the explanation of the concept of intelligence will be necessary to provide evidence of the intelligence theory given by Charles Spearman
Charles Spearman initiates the modern awareness of the human intelligence. In 1904 hi carry out experiment for residents of his neighbourhood of 24 children from village school in Berkshire. These tests were done on a one- to – one basis. In the time following Spearman continuo the sample with 36 oldest children from the same school. In 1904 and 1921 Spearman hi examine the result of the mind task. Hi collected the date from individual and analysed the relation between them using the variety of intelligence tests and to subject them to factor analysed.

Hi found positive correlation between intelligence tests were the main factor predicated the quality of children work in different task and hi name it factor “g”. Spearman used this idea of the many different positive form to propose a “Two factor theory of intelligence”.

The “Two factor theory of intelligence” which signifies that to make the mind task is necessary to use the general intellectual abilities (factor g) also the specific abilities (factor s).

According to the Spearman (1927) the “two factor theory”, and all human abilities accumulate around two independent factors: general factor (communal) – “g”, and specific factor “s”.

Factor “g” can be name as general intelligence. This factor appears in the same extent in all human abilities- according to Spearman (1927) this factor is identified as inherent mental energy. All intellectual functions are saturate by factor “g”. In distinguishing from all other factors, factor “g” cannot be link up with other single abilities. According to Wechsler (1958, p. 124) factor “g” in the essence is not just abilities is characteristic of mind.

Spearman observe that for each separate type of intelligence is needed each separate type of specific test of intelligence. The purpose of specific factor “s” is specific abilities which are suitable to specific function which are characteristic to some intellectual function.

The specific ability reflex our cultural condition and range of our experience.
Therefore hi named the mathematic intelligence is a specific ability, manual intelligence is a specific ability, cooking intelligence is specific abilities, and vocabulary intelligence is a specific ability.

Next psychologists which attempt explain the concept of intelligence as factor analysis is Raymond B. Cattell (1952). Hi proposes the explanation of the “liquid and crystallized theory of intelligence”.

The theory of “fluid and crystallized general abilities,” will be found to be not one factor but two principal classes or dimensions. One is crystallized ability “gc” which are influence of process of early learning, life experience, and cognitive performance were become crystallized as a result of experience. The second are fluid ability “gf” is a outcome of influence of biological factor on the intellectual development. The factor “gf” is under condition of the brain and strong genetic factor. This factor influence all mind ability.

The fluid intelligence (gf) depending on genetic structure of brain function. The changes in the fluid intelligence are related to groiing up process, also the generation of the brain cell so the changes have developing character. The fluid intelligence can be clearly identified in the literal tests, which showing the connection between elements.

Crystallized intelligence (gc) develop o the fluid intelligence in the process of learning and gating life experience. The crystallized intelligence are determine by culture. To measure the crystallized intelligence psychologists used the traditional tests of intelligence. On proof of the tests psychologists can measure verbal ability, numerous ability, also rational ability which are base on rules of logic. Crystallized intelligence different then fluid intelligence develop t the oldest age sets in after about 70. Crystallized abilities continue to improve as individuals age (Horn & Cattell, 1967). People in the oldest age also have high effect of the characteristic intellectual function.

We cannot dill with the problematic of the intelligence without propos knowledge and understudying of the scientific concept. The understanding of intelligence give allots of problem to psychologists. From one side the problem is coming from the historical capture of the intellectual essence in relation of the epoch fascination (behaviourism and cognitive).

From another side the contemporary psychologists do not agree unanimously what is intelligence. Seem appear that the many years of the research convince them that they dealing with secret and complicated process, which cannot presented in simple way and is difficult to investigate and explored t the standard methodological instrument or tool. Become visible that us interior is the biggest world secret, which escape from objective analyse.

References.
D. K. Simonton. An interview with Dr. Simonton. In J. A. Plucker, editor, Human intelligence: Historical influences, current controversies, teaching resources. http://www.indiana.edu/∼intell, 2003.

Horn, J. L., & Cattell, R. B. (1966a). Refinement and test of the theory of fluid and crystallized general intelligences. Journal of Educational Psychology, 57, 253-270.

Horn, J. L., & Cattell, R. B. (1967). Age differences in fluid and crystallized intelligence. Acta Psychologica, 26, 107-129.

Horn, J.L. (1965). Fluid and crystallized intelligence: A factor analytic study of the structure among primary mental abilities. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Illinois.

J. Piaget. The psychology of intelligence. Routledge, New York, 1963.

Piaget, J. (1936, 1963) The origins of intelligence in children. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Piaget, J. (1954, 1981). Intelligence and affectivity: Their relationship during child development. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Review, Inc.

Piaget, J. (1963, 2001). The psychology of intelligence. New York: Routledge.

Spearman, C. (1904). “General intelligence,” objectively determined and measured. American Journal of Psychology, 15, 201-293.
Sternberg, R. J. (Ed.). (2000b) Handbook of intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Sternberg, R. J., & Detterman, D. K. (1986). What is intelligence? Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Sternberg, R.J. (1988). The triarchic mind: A new theory of human intelligence. New York: Viking.

Sternberg, R.J. (1991). Theory-based testing of intellectual abilities: rationale for the triarchic abilities test. In H.A.

Rowe (Ed.), Intelligence: reconceptualization and measurement. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Sternberg, R.J. (1993). Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test (Level H). Unpublished test.

Sternberg, R.J. (1994a). Experimental approaches to human intelligence. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 10, 153–161.

Sternberg, R.J. (1994b). Changing conceptions of intelligence and their impact upon the concept of giftedness: The triarchic theory of intelligence. In J.L. Genshaft, M. Bireley, & C.L. Hollinger (Eds.), Serving gifted and talented students (pp. 33–47). Austin, TX: Pro-ed.

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