Situation where a psychologist has been used to find a solution to a real world problem.


In order to answer all the question it is important to explain and predict by proposing the ex-istence or operation of entities that have not been observed.

Addiction can be defined as a degree of participation in a behaviour that can function both to deliver pleasure and to give relief from discomfort to the point where the costs appear to ex-ceed the benefits.

Idea of addiction is use in relation to substance or behaviour. According to psychologists people can be addicted from heroin, gambling, nicotine and work.

Word “addictions” has become really popular. In the foundation of addiction lack of control of one’s own thinking, behaviour and life brings a continuous search for drugs or situation which will trigger known emotion state.

Physical dependence, abuse of, and withdrawal from drugs and other miscellaneous sub-stances is outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV TR). Addict is a sick person and addiction is a disease (Kohn 1987).

From the time when the addiction of alcohol or nicotine was permanently assigned to the re-cord of social problem and does not surprise our society any more as drug addiction which is often linked to the death by HIV virus and injection by aggressive and desperate owner.

Stereotypes like this has led to misunderstanding and triggers negativeness of our society. It has also resulted in ostracism and has isolated family of addicted persons. Till time under-standing of addiction will be based on mythology and stereotypes which are upheld by fear and lack of authentic knowledge. Family of addictive person will have tendency to hide the problem because of farness of negative reaction from the society.

Accordingly children inform their parents about their addiction often at the last. A Wife will try to inform husband at the last and will not confide about the secrets to the rest of family who will know only the version about an “illness” or “disease”. According to “disease model of addiction” in which the behaviour it is a disease and the drug use is a symptoms of drag addiction. Such as disease not mean that the individuals are a positive subject in the addiction process.

Addiction supposed to perceive in category of process which inclusive series of change or altering behaviour, thinking, feeling which are become deeper over time. Long time usage of drug makes the body used to the drug and because of that addict increase the dose or the time of taking to get the expecting effect. It is important to observe that the progressive addiction eliminates delivery of experience which we surround in the first contact with drugs.
Because of short time of the experience an addict choose different type of drugs which will help elongarte the state of pleasure or eliminate the withdrawal.

Source of addictive behaviour is a pathological need for a substance. Language use by addict is changing and is dependent of environment and the person who they are talking to. If they talk to policeman they put them self in a position they can change they behaviour and be out of control thereby making their situation evident.

A first contact with drugs is started during the process of growing up. In the same time teen-age behaviour is unpredicted, they become drastic in they opinion and the way of react. Looking for answer on the base questions, won’t to be accepted in a group, fight for inde-pendence, telling they parent about they mistake, and try live on they own idea. In this period is coming crisis of identity. To answer the question how I am, where is my place, yang person looking for authority which will fit to his criticisms and idealism. Also sometime young person starts isolate, start making they own separate world. For many hours sitting alone in they own room, loosing the motivation to study and meeting friends.

According to the “Psychosexual Stages of Development” Sigmund Freud (1948). All five stages propose the structure of personality in addiction.

First Oral stage is in the first two years of life where the mouth is the prime erogenous zone and greatest source of gratification is feeding. Second Anal stage is in 2 to 3 year of life. Third Phallic stage from age 3 to 5 or 6. Four Latency stage is 6 to 12, and fifth stage Genital is after the first experience of pleasure from sexual relation.

Freud believed that there is important gratification in each stage, if person will not resave the right gratification can drinking or taking drags in adult life. This is one of the theories that will help to understand the psychodynamic perspective of addiction and can give explanation for the association with addiction. Treatment for narcotic addiction is similar to treatment of alcoholic addiction. In the process of addiction addicts feel physical withdrawal from de-pendency of the drug and need to go thorough detox. After successful detox is time for ther-apy. A lot of heroin addicts choose treatment with methadone because withdrawal from her-oin does not remove craving for the drug.

One of the types of heroin therapy is group therapy to present closely the process of group therapy it will be necessary to give example from a real world problem.

A Polish 19 year old female was diagnosed by Psychologist with addiction of heroin in a clin-ics call “Half way home” in Warsaw. Clink “K.A.R.A.N.” had program, of 9 mount group therapy for young people whit range age of 16 to 20, female and male. Each addict were treated individually and if some of the addicts needed more time than 9 months to complete the program then they were given. The four stages of group therapy were spent isolated from outside world, friends and family.

First step is called me stage. In this stage addicted person is working on motivation to make change in the therapy, realise the simple problem like egoism, manipulation, changing the thinking and face the problem of addiction. Also in this step addict present their own motiva-tion to change and leave drugs on the special group meeting whit psychologist.

Second step is the stage of me and my family. To achieve the next step addict needs to present every problem which he think he can fix or change to the group and psychologists. If self presentation will be accepted and will be according to the real progress therapy, addict will be allowed to move to the second stage. In the process of the stage the addicted person is allowed to leave the clinic for short time with supervision of parent or guardian. Also the pa-tient can attend to school to continue education.

Third step is me and me outside world. This stage addict is more independent, and is allow living the clinic wherever he need to. To achieve the third step patient needs to present in the group meeting all problems which he has changed or is working on at that moment.

Fourth and last step is called me and my aims and gain for the future. In this stage addict be comes named neophyte which means converted. Like in third step patient needs to present the problem and reflect on the progress, and change thorough therapy. Indicate more interested in problem of other people in the clinic. The last stage is time to get ready to leave the therapy, and life with new self.

Thorough the therapies each addict has some function which he is responsible for. The func-tion is given by psychologist and is dependent on the time – how long the person is in a clinic, and some individual resent. For every mistake example swearing or forget to switch lights in a room is given help like writing 200 times “I will never again forget to switch of the lights”.

Method use by Psychologists in this therapy is a different then 12 step program for alcoholic. Yong addict can fix the problem with family and will be able to come back to family home after they finish that therapy. Or start they own life independent. In a beginning the clinic can help whit accommodation and support but not for longer then one year long.

Some of the addicts can survive outside and never again come back to taking the drugs. Some of them will come back to the same problem with addiction and use the treatment again.

Every addict has the chance to come out from the problem but is up to them that therapy is successful. If they are honest throughout the therapy and they have support from family and friends they have big chance to never come back to addiction.

Refernces.
Carson, R. Butcher, N. Mineka, S.(2004) “Abnormal Psychology and Modern Life”, India: Pearson.

Cynthia, E. Glidden, T.(2005). “Counselling and Therapy With Clients Who Abuse Alcohol or Other Drugs” An Integrative Approach. London: Lawrence Erlbaum.

McMurran, M.(1994). The Psychology of Addiction. London: Taylor & Francis.

O’Donnell, J. A. Ball, J. C. (1966). Narcotic Addiction. London: Harper & Ro West, R. (2007).“Theory of Addiction “, London: Blackwell.

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